Way back in 2005, I converted my website (and its predecessor) over to Drupal. Drupal has served me well for the last 13 years, but due to the direction in which Drupal as a product has moved, I do not feel it is the right choice for me anymore.
So I instead checked out WordPress, and was rather happy with it. It does one thing (blogging) really really well, instead of trying to be the “kitchen sink” like Drupal. As of this writing, I’ve ported over just about all of the content I wanted to port over, and have since switched www.dmuth.org to point to this WordPress Install.
Along the way, I learned some thing about how to set up and configure WordPress, let me share them with you:
When I made the move to WordPress a few weeks ago I had a lot to learn, both in terms of functionality that WordPress had to offer, as well as modules that I could install and which of those modules actually worked well!
So I’m going to spend this post sharing what modules I found the most useful so that anyone else who is getting into WordPress can have an easier time getting started.
Even if you don’t use Facebook or Twitter, chances are that your visitors do and they share your content on those sites. So this module is probably the most important module of the entire list, because it adds the appropriate meta tags to ensure that when your content is shared on either service, it is rendered correctly.
Furthermore, the Open Graph module allows you to set a default image and override it with other an image from the post itself or one uploaded separately:
Again, I cannot stress it enough–if you want your content to look presentable on social media sites, you need to use this module. Otherwise, you are passing up a huge opportunity.
One of the neat things about WordPress is that when you upload an image and then include that image in a blog post, you can decide where that image links to. The image can link to nothing at all, the raw image, or an “attachment page” which contains that image and a caption.
That said, something that has caused me grief for out of the box WordPress builds has been the image on the media page being really small. Take for example, this picture of a freeloading cheetah. When I upload the picture, the attachment page looks like this:
Just look at that. A tiny image and a bunch of the page being completely unused. Disgraceful. Surely we can do better!
As it turns out, tweaking a single line of code can be used to change the size of all images on media pages.
In my case, over my Christmas vacation, I checked into a Mom and Pop hotel, or rather a motel! It was about 24 rooms all in a row, occupying a single floor. Since they were on a budget, their Internet offering consisted of what appeared to be 5 or 6 Linksys routers set up every few rooms. You’d simply connect to the closest access point and have Internet.
But there was a problem: determining which access point was closest to me! The signal strength indicator on my computer showed several of them were 3/3 bars so that wasn’t much help. I tried connecting to the first one, but had virtually no Internet connectivity.
In the above example, I added in the TARGETS environment variable, and was sure to include 192.168.1.1, which was the IP for each router (they were all the same). Then I set Splunk “real-time mode” and periodically checked that tab as I was working. This is what I saw:
In a previous post, I wrote about using Splunk to monitor network health and connectivity. While building that project, I thought it would be nice if I could build a more generic application which could be used to perform ad hoc data analysis on pre-existing data without having to go through a complicated process each time I wanted to do some analytics.
So I built Splunk Lab! It is a Dockerized version of Splunk which, when started, will automatically ingest entire directories of logs. Furthermore, if started with the proper configuration, any dashboards or field extractions which are created will persist after the container is terminated, which means they can be used again in the future.
A typical use case for me has been to run this on my webserver to go through my logs on a particularly busy day and see what hosts or pages are generating the most traffic. I’ve also used this when a spambot starts hitting my website for invalid URLs.
This will download the container, start it up, and mount the appropriate directories. The containerized version of Splunk looks recursively for logs in /logs/, stores its data in /data/, and stores dashboards that are created in /app/. (Note that if you try to use “password” as your password, the container will refuse to start for safety reasons!)
First things first, let’s verify our data was loaded and do some field extractions!
I’ve been using Splunk professionally over the last several years, and I’ve become a big fan of using it for my data processing needs. Splunk is very very good about ingesting just about any kind of event data, optionally extracting fields at search time, and providing tools to graph that data, find trends, and see what is really happening on your platform. This is important when your platform consists of thousands of servers, as it does at my day job!
While Splunk can handle events in timestamp key=value key2=value2 format, it also has support for dozens of standardized formats such as syslog, Apache logs, etc. If your data is in a customized format, no problem! Splunk can extract that data at either index or search time! Finally, there’s the Search Processing Language, which is like SQL but for your event data. With SPL, you can run queries, generate graphs, and combine them all programatically.
So yeah, I’m a huge fan of Splunk. One thing I use it for out of the of office is to graph the health of my Internet connection. This is useful both for when I’m at home and when I am traveling–I just feed the output of ping into Splunk and then I can get graphs of packet loss and network latency.
Let’s just jump into an example screen–here’s what I saw when I was a friend’s place and I uploaded a video to YouTube:
Overall, I am pretty happy with the Twenty Seventeen theme that ships with WordPress, but one thing that really drives me crazy is that whatever cover image you upload takes up nearly 100% of the entire web browser when viewing on a desktop or laptop. I find it darn near infuriating, because I have to scroll down just to click on a menu link or see content. That ain’t right.
TL;DR If you are comfortable with Docker and Docker Compose, you can go straight to the GitHub repo and get started. For the everyone else, read on…
When I stood up this website, I wanted to do so in Docker, but I ran into an issue: the official WordPress Docker image runs Apache. Apache is a nice webserver for small amounts of traffic, but it does not scale well. As more concurrent connections come into a server running Apache, more copies of the httpd process are forked, which causes RAM usage to go up. Having RAM usage regularly go up and down is not ideal.
Fortunately, there is a better way. The Nginx webserver, combined with PHP running in FPM mode scales much better as the memory usage is more constant, which means that peak loads on the server won’t cause you to thrash the swapfile. Encryption would also be nice, so I wanted to have some SSL going as well.
I couldn’t find any existing solutions, so I built one! In this post, I’m going to walk through each piece of the puzzle.